\documentclass[11pt,twocolumn]{article}
\usepackage{/home/mackay/tex/inputs/ab}
\usepackage{fancybox}
\textheight=10.95in
\columnsep=1.4cm
\textwidth=7.2in
\oddsidemargin=-0.5in
\topmargin=-1.3in
\pagestyle{empty}
\begin{document}
\input{/home/mackay/tex/inputs/newcommands1.tex}
\input{/home/mackay/tex/inputs/newcommands2.tex}
\newcount\qnum \qnum=0
\def\q #1\par{\global\advance\qnum by 1%
\medskip\medskip\noindent\llap{\bf \the\qnum\hskip1.5ex}#1\vskip 0pt
plus 1filll}
%\begin{center}
%{\Large \sc AIMS in Lesotho}\\[0.25in]
%{\Large \bf Interactive Teaching Workshop}\\
%\end{center}
\thispagestyle{empty}
\author{{\sc{AIMS in Lesotho}}}
\title{Interactive Teaching Workshop -- Ideas to take away}
\date{}
\maketitle
\thispagestyle{empty}
\setlength{\fboxsep}{4mm}
\begin{figure}[htbp]
\Ovalbox{
\begin{minipage}{2.81in}
% \section*{teaching for understanding}
%Effective teaching
%\bit
%\item
$\bullet$ Encourage pupils \\[0.1in] \hspace*{0.2in}
$%\left\{
\mbox{
\begin{tabular}{l}
-- to think for themselves
\\
-- to enjoy figuring things out
\\
-- to criticise their own reasoning
% ; and
\end{tabular}
}
%\right.
$ \medskip
%Effective teaching
% \item
% Effective teaching
$\bullet$ Turn students into teachers
%\eit
\end{minipage}
}
\end{figure}
\section*{Ideas to try}
%\ben
\q Discuss lessons with
a teaching partner, before and after
each class.
%% (Reason: self-evaluation. Having a partner helps you reflect on your teaching.)
\q
{\bf Problem-based learning}.
Plan your courses around projects chosen by the students.
% (If they have chosen projects they are interested
% in, they will be more motivated, and will learn more.)
Their projects will then motivate them to
learn relevant
science and mathematics. (For example,
if the project is `make a solar water-heater', then the
students will need to learn about {\sl pressure, density,
friction, radiation}; and if they try to optimize
their design, they will discover a need for {\sl calculus}.
The project `understand the AIDS epidemic' will motivate
learning about {\sl physiology, cells, viruses}; about
mathematical functions
such as {\sl exponentials}; and about {\sl probabilities}.)
When a project is completed, offer a new range of projects
that will motivate other topics from the science and
mathematics curriculum.
\q
Encourage students to {\bf ask questions}. And when a student asks a question,
{\em{don't answer the question}}! Say `what do {\em you\/} think?'
(Reason: students must be active.)
\q {\bf Ask questions}.
Plan each lesson around one or two questions.
Help the students discover answers to the questions.
(Reason: students must create the subject for themselves.)
\q When you have explained a new idea, {\bf{ask a question}} to
find out whether the idea has taken root in each student.
\q When asking the class questions, give {\em{all}\/}
the students time to answer.
% the question, not just whichever student is quickest.
And ask the class to {\bf{criticise their own answers}}.
For example, ask if they have
an alternative answer that they think might be correct.
% Ask `are you sure?'
% Does your answer make sense?'
\q If students answer questions incorrectly,
% and don't manage by self-criticism to reveal the problem,
{\bf{ask another question}}
to direct their self-criticism.
\q {\bf Peer teaching}.
Have students explain things to each other.
\q Have {\bf seniors teach juniors}. (This may be useless for the
juniors, but it's great for the seniors!)
\q Give students {\bf free time} to think and formulate questions.
\q Put students in small groups to discuss things. Have groups explain their
thoughts to the whole class.
\q Have students evaluate their own presentations.
\q Have students evaluate each others' presentations.
\q When asking a group for opinions or feedback, go through the
group from the most junior to the most senior.
\q Encourage students to {\bf question authority}.
`Don't memorise -- argue!'
\q
Establish a group of teachers who meet for two days every 6 weeks to share
teaching ideas.
% \een
\section*{Remember}
%% \subsection*{When does learning happen?}
\noindent
{\bf Learning is
% facilitated
maximized
% most successfully achieved
when}:
\ben
\item
%(1)
the {\bf student participates completely
in the learning process}, controlling
its nature and direction,
\item
% (2)
learning
% is primarily based upon direct confrontation with
addresses
practical,
social, or personal {\bf problems}, and
\item
% (3)
{\bf self-evaluation} is the
principal method of assessing progress or success.
\een
\end{document}
\subsection*{Balh}
My personal views on effective teaching are that
1. it should involve creative activity on the part of the students; and
2. the teacher should ascertain, and be responsive to, the level of understanding of the students.
For every class that you give:
\ben
\item
Get a colleague to help you plan your class; ask them to sit in on the class too, and to meet for a post-mortem.
\item
Center the class around a sequence of questions. Pose these questions to the students, and give them time to think about them. Get immediate feedback from the students, either by letting them work on some questions, and looking over their shoulders; or by having them vote on alternatives that you offer them; or, if the students are willing to talk, by verbal discussion.
\item
A well-chosen sequence of questions will motivate the topic and will lead the students to figure out the subject for themselves.
\item
After the class, discuss with your colleague:
\bit
\item
What unexpected misconceptions came up?
\item
What worked well?
\item
What did not work well?
\item
When were the class interested?
\item
When were they bored?
\item
What questions should you ask in the next class, to check that they have assimilated the latest material?
\item
How could you give the class better next time?
\eit
\item
Encourage the students to be self-critical, to ask themselves questions, and to seek out paradoxes. Persistently resolving things that do not appear to make sense is a route to excellent understanding. Formulating a precise statement of what does not appear to make sense is half the battle.
\item
Don't give definitions: give examples. If you must give definitions, give an example first.
\een
\section{Suggestions}
\section*{Principles}
\ben
\item
to have successful teaching, we
need the students to be ACTIVE.
\item
{\em{ self-evaluation}} is an
essential skill that we should promote in our pupils.
\item
we
need the students to be MOTIVATED.
\item
students need FREE TIME to think.
\item
teaching is a great way to learn.
We should
integrate {\em{explaining}} and {\em{peer-teaching}} into our classes.
\een
%\medskip
\vskip 0pt
plus 1filll
If problem-based learning is not possible,
you can try interactive teaching methods
in a traditional classroom setting. See ideas 3--16.
\vskip 0pt
plus 1filll
% \medskip