Carbon injection rate:
Sleipner -- Utsira saline aquifer -- 1 Mt CO2 per year.
Qu: What is the fractured volume? The exposed area over which this flow is
happening? The tax value there is \$55 per tonne.
Qu: how does the injection rate depend on the overpressure?
Algeria: ``In Salah'' is also storing 1 Mt / y. A loss-making activity
costing \$6 per tonne.
One wedge (princeton) is 3500 sleipners (3.5 Gt CO2 per year, 1 Gt of carbon/y).
The great \ind{pyramid} at \ind{Giza}\index{great pyramid}
has a volume of
2\,500\,000 cubic metres.
Lovell says `` 1 GW unabated coal produces 5-7 Mt per year.''
I got 8.8 Mt per year from a flat-out 1GW plant, assuming 1000g per kWh.
So actually I should have said 2-3 Gizas per year.
\twofigures{90mm}{70mm}{
\begin{tabular}{cc}
\begin{tabular}[b]{lr}\toprule
France &83\\
Sweden &87 \\
Canada &220 \\
Austria &250 \\
Belgium &335 \\
European Union& 353 \\
Finland &399 \\
Spain &408 \\
Japan &483 \\
Portugal& 525\\
&\\
&\\
&\\
&\\
&\\
%\bottomrule
\end{tabular}&
\begin{tabular}[b]{lr}%\toprule
UK\phantom{ropean Union} &580 \\
Luxembourg & 590 \\
Germany &601 \\
USA &613 \\
Netherlands& 652 \\
Italy &667 \\
Ireland &784 \\
Greece &864 \\
Denmark &881\\
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
}{
\begin{table}[h]
\figuremargin{\small
\begin{tabular}{lrr}\toprule
& MJ/t-km& kWh/t-km \\ \midrule
inland water & 0.3 & 0.083 \\
rail & 0.3 & 0.083\\
truck & 2.7 & 0.75\\
air & 10.0 & 2.8\\
oil pipeline & 0.2 & 0.056\\
gas pipeline & 1.7 & 0.47\\
%int. air & 10.0 & 2.8\\
int'l water container & 0.2 & 0.056\\
int'l water bulk & 0.2 & 0.056\\
int'l water tanker & 0.1 & 0.028\\ \bottomrule
\end{tabular}
}{
\caption[a]{
Energy intensity of transport modes in the USA\@.
Source: \cite{WeberMatthews}.
}\label{tabUStransp}
}
\end{table}
\section{Assorted crazy units}
For flow of water:
1\,Sv (sverdrup) = 10$^6$ m$^3$/s.
% http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sverdrup
Not to be confused with the SI unit of radiation (sievert),
1\,Sv = 1\,J/kg.
\section{Carbon}
\subsection{Carbon intensity of steel and concrete}
Steel: roughly 2\,\tonnes\ of \COO\ per \tonne\ of steel.
Concrete:
a life-cycle analysis gives 43--240\,kg \COO\ per \tonne, depending
on the type of concrete, with
100\,kg per \tonne\ of concrete as a median figure
\myurl{http://www.sustainableconcrete.org.uk/main.asp?page=210}.
Cement:
\tinyurl{6syoql}{http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.energy.26.1.303}\cite{concrete}:
``The average intensity of carbon dioxide emissions from
global cement production is 222\,kg of C/t of cement.'' (814\,kg \COO
per t of cement).
% total carbon emissions from cement production in 1994 were 307 million metric tons of carbon (MtC), 160 MtC from process carbon emissions, and 147 MtC from energy use.
\section{Temperatures}
Standard swimming pool temperature:
28\degreesC, with the hall 1\degreeC\ warmer.
Standard temperature for accommodation for
elderly people: 20--21\degreesC.
Average winter temperature of British houses in the 1970s:
13\degreesC.
\section{DUKES standards}
In DUKES the standard multiplier is
1\,TWh of electricity = 0.086\,Mtoe.
This means 1\,Mtoe = 11.6\,\TWhe.
%% I convert Mtoe/y/UK to kWh/d/p using *32/60
%% convert Mtoe/y/UK to kWh/d/p using * 0.52932
UK electricity carbon emissions (DUKES 07):
coal 239\,tC per GWh;
gas 101\,tC per GWh;
all fossil fuels 172\,tC/GWh;
average for all electricity 131\,tC/GWh.
Or in grams of \COO\ per kWh:
coal 876;
gas 370;
all fossil fuels 630;
average for all electricity 480.
A price of \euro30 per
\tonne\ of \COO\ implies \euro0.03 per kWh of electricity
for coal generation.
Hmm, that figure for gas sounds smaller than normal?
% from gordon
% The carbon intensity of GB electricity is often taken as 0.43 kgCO2/kWh. (See
%http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/envrp/pdf/conversion-factors.pdf
%Annexe 3). This is described as the ???Long Term Marginal Factor???, taken as
%that for gas-fired generation. However, this is far from correct for the
%average, and would distort carbon emissions and savings, and their costs.
%
%This reference gives the rolling average for the years 2001 to 2005 as 0.52300
%and the average for 2005 as 0.52657 kgCO2/kWh ??? i.e. 0.144 kgC/kWh. These
%values are averages for all the electricity consumed. However, in 2003 the
%average transmission and distribution loss was 8.7%, but that for low voltage
%customers was 12.2 %. (http://www.chpa.org.uk/news/reports_pubs/Time to Take
%a Fresh Look at CHP October 2005.pdf). Hence the average carbon intensity of
%GB electricity delivered at low voltage should be multiplied by (100 -
%8.7)/(100 ??? 12.2) = 1.040.
%So that in 2005 was 0.52657 x 1.040 = 0.548 kgCO2/kWh ??? i.e. 0.149 kgC/kWh.
\subsection{Metabolism}
1\,ml O$_2$ = 20.9\,J.
(Ranges from 19.6 to 21.15, depending on what you're burning.)
% 'respiratory quotient'
Nitrogen fertilizers:
cost 80\,GJ per \ton\ to make.
Cattle feed:
feed's calorific value is 13\,GJ per ton.
\subsection{Viscosity}
$\nu = \mu/\rho$.
$\nu$ (kinematic viscosity) is in m$^2$/s.
The dynamic viscosity $\mu$ of water at 20\degreesC\ is
1.0020\,cP (cgs unit) $\simeq$ 1 mPa s (SI unit).
That corresponds to a kinematic viscosity of
$\mu \simeq 10^{-6}$\,m$^2$/s.
% http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/water-dynamic-kinematic-viscosity-d_596.html
For a gas with average molecular speed
$\bar{u}$,
$\nu$ is related to
mean free path $\lambda$ by
$\nu = 2 \bar{u} \lambda$.
\section{The most useful numbers of all}
\subsection{Consumption}
UK energy consumption is 125\,kWh per day per person, or 300\,GW per UK.
UK \COO\ emissions are 10 {\tonne}s of \COO\ per year per person, or
600\,Mt\,\COO\ per year per UK,
or 160\,Mt\,Carbon per year per UK.
``Safe'' global emissions would be one eighth of this: 1$\frac{1}{4}$
{\tonne}s of \COO\ per year per person.
UK electricity consumption is 17\,kWh per day per person, or 42.5\,GW per UK.
% possibly 17
UK electricity production emits 30\% of UK \COO.
\subsection{Costs}
Nuclear costs \pounds30--37/MWh\ or 3--3.7\,p/kWh.
\subsection{Exchange rates}
Coal: 1000\,g of \COO\ per \kWh\ electricity.
Gas: 445\,g of \COO\ per \kWh\ electricity.
Nuclear: 30\,g.
% natural gas: 38.3 MJ / m**3
Motor gasoline: 1 barrel = 0.1172 metric tons
% 1TCF of gas could power the average family vehicle around the earth (40 000 kilometres) in excess of 10 million times.
Let's have a table converting between miles per gallon, miles per litre, miles per kilometre, and grammes \COO\ per kilometre
Lexus with a hybrid engine (emissions 184\,g per km).
The Lexus RX\,400h \COO\ emissions are 192\,g/km.
Toyota Prius (104g). 65.7mpg
%Check:
%104 g COO / km * 14.0/44.0
%->
%33g CH2 / km
%->
%0.044899 l / km
%->
%22 km/l
%->
%52.38 mpg (US)
%->
%62.91 miles per imperial gallon
%RATS. expecting 65.7.
%How come this disagrees by 4\%?
%
%Could be my CH2 approximation?
%Actually C8H18
%so I was off by
%pr 8*(12+2.0) / ( 8*12 + 10*2.0)
%aha, maybe this'll fix it?
%Gives 21.5039
%->
%60.74 even worse.
%
%0.737 kg / l
% page 119
In DUKES, Electricity generated from renewables is converted to
equivalent Mtoe using ($x$TWh) × 0.085985.
% that is just the literal conversion rate.
Nuclear has thermal efficiency of 38\%.
% page 119-120
% eg 75.5*0.085985/0.38
% I convert Mtoe/y/UK to kWh/d/p using *32/60
%% I think BP use a different multiplier to value electricity from eg hydro
\section{Carbon per energy}
Coal-fired plants produced 1000\,g of carbon dioxide for every kWh of electricity produced.
In contrast, gas produces only 500\,g and nuclear just 30\,g.
Cape Town / LHR return:
your emissions are 2.82 {\tonne}s of \COO.
The cost to offset this \COO\ will be \pounds21.18.
Climatecare.org: \pounds7.50\ per {\tonne} \COO `offset'.
growaforest.com said 2.13 {\tonne}s -- 4 trees.
From co2Seq.tex
4\,kWh of heat from fossil fuels is roughly 1\,kg of \COO
asserted that The Carbon impact of Gas was 0.5kg per unit (0.445 kg \COO);
and of coal, 1kg per unit (0.955 kg \COO).]
%\subsection*
%% \kg\ of \COO\ per \kWh
\begin{table}[htbp]
\figuremargin{
\begin{tabular}{rrr} \toprule
& \multicolumn{1}{c}{\COO} &\multicolumn{1}{c}{Carbon} \\ \midrule
% pr 243e3 * 44.0/12 / 1e6
% 891
Coal & 1000\,g\,\COO/\kWhe & 250\,tC/\GWhe \\%243\,tC/GWh \\
% pr 97e3 * 44.0/12 / 1e6
%356
Gas & 400\,g\,\COO/\kWhe & 100\,tC/\GWhe \\% 97
% pr 4.4e3 * 44.0/12 / 1e6
Nuclear & 16\,g\,\COO/\kWhe$^*$ & 4.4\,tC/\GWhe$^*$ \\ \bottomrule
\end{tabular}
}
{
\caption[a]{Exchange rate between carbon emissions and electrical energy.
%% Range: 2-20 tCOO/GWh -- about the same as windpower. (from Nuclear-paper2 p23)
$*$) The figure for nuclear depends on the source of the energy
for nuclear fuel creation. Currently, the UK is highly
dependent on fossil-fired electricity
generation, making indirect emissions the
primary source of nuclear \COO\ output. If
nuclear plants replaced fossil-fired plants as
the primary electricity generators, the \COO\
emissions for nuclear power would
fall.
(from Nuclear-paper2, Sustainable Development Commission p23)
}
}
\end{table}
\begin{tabular}{lc@{\ $\leftrightarrow$\ }c}\toprule
\multicolumn{3}{c}{\sc{Conversion factors}}\\ \midrule
Burning fossil fuels:
&{4\,kWh}{\small(enthalpy)}
&{1\,kg of \COO} \\
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
World: 43 people per km$^2$.
England population density: 380 per km$^2$, or 2\,600\,\m$^2$ per person.
Energy density of petrol: 30\,MJ/l or 40\,MJ/kg.
European: 120 kWh/day.
THE BIG CONSUMPTION LIST
From BP Statistical Review.
One million \tonnes\ of oil produces about 4500 GWh of electricity
in a modern power station.
One \tonne\ of oil equivalent equals 42GJ of heat or 12,000 kWh.
One \tonne\ of oil per year is 32 kWh/day.
So 3.8 \tonnes\ of oil per year is the same as 125 kWh/day;
9.8 toe per year is the same as 312 kWh/day (13kW).
% A very very rough relationship is 1 toe per year ~= 1 kW.
1 British thermal unit (Btu) = 0.252 kcal
= 1.055 kJ
1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 860 kcal
= 3600 kJ = 3412 Btu
---------------------------------------------
Calorific equivalents
One \tonne\ of oil equivalent equals
approximately:
Heat units 10 million kilocalories
42 gigajoules
40 million Btu
Solid fuels 1.5 \tonnes\ of hard coal
3 \tonnes\ of lignite
Gaseous fuels see natural gas and
LNG table
Electricity 12 megawatt-hours
---------------------------------------------
One million \tonnes\ of oil produces about
4500 gigawatt-hours (= 4.5 terawatt-hours)
of electricity in a modern power station.
\subsection{Cars}
1\,kWh per km.
\begin{table}[htbp]
\figuremarginb{
\begin{tabular}{lcl}\toprule
{\sc Power type} & & {\sc Power per unit area } \\
& & {\sc of flat ground} \\ \midrule
\multicolumn{2}{l}{{\sc Wind farm:} {$v=6$\,m/s} (force 4)} & {2\,\Wmm } \\
\midrule
{\sc Solar} & efficiency \\
Photovoltaic & 20\% & {16\,\Wmm} {South-facing roof} \\
%% Efficiency
& 20\% & {10\,\Wmm} {flat ground} \\
Biomass & 1\% & {0.5\,\Wmm} {flat ground} \\
Ocean thermal & & {5\,\Wmm} (upper bound in tropics) \\ \midrule
Tide pool & & {4\,\Wmm} \\
\multicolumn{2}{l}{Tide-farm (using currents)}\\
\multicolumn{2}{l}{\ \ (spring 1.5\,m/s : neap 0.9\,m/s) } & 6\,\Wmm \\
% (see table \ref{tab.tidefarm}) \\
Geothermal & & {17\,m\Wmm} \\
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
}{
\caption[a]{Power densities of renewable sources (per unit land- or sea-area)}
\label{tab.powerWmm}
}
\end{table}
Car battery (lead-acid):
%% 108 kJ/kg (from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Car_battery )
0.03\,kWh/kg.
%% http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_ion_battery
%% 150 to 200 W·h/kg (540 to 720 kJ/kg)
%% 0.15--0.2 kWh/kg
Lithium-ion:
0.15--0.2\,kWh/kg.
Still about 50 times heavier than petrol.
Batteries:
Energy densities of fuels.
Petrol 31.5\,MJ/l; bioethanol 21.6\,MJ/l; methanol 21.2\,MJ/l.
(too high?)
\cite{RisoBiofuels} says methanol is 14.6\,MJ/l. (too low?)
Wikipedia says methanol's low heating value is 19.7\,MJ/kg.
Methanol lower value: 19.94\,MJ/kg. Wikipedia. (15.8\,MJ/l)
Methanol HHV: 22.7\,MJ/kg.
Methanol density: 0.7918 g/cc; so HHV is 18.0\,MJ/l.
Ethanol density: 0.789.
Ethanol Higher value: 29.8\,MJ/kg. Wikipedia.
Ethanol lower value: 28.87\,MJ/kg. Wikipedia.
That's HHV 23.512\,MJ/l, LHV 22.778\,MJ/l.
Carbon contents of fuels
Useful figure:
Gas generation: 400\,g \COO/\kWhe.
(from page 127 in DTI-PIU.pdf)
53.463e6 J /kg in watt hour per kg
% IPCC %Heat of combustion (LHV) 48.252 MJ kg-1 %Heat of combustion (HHV) 53.463 MJ kg-1
Gas is 40\,MJ per cubic metre.
%% http://ecen.com/eee48/eee48e/carbon_content_n_gas_using_heat_values.htm
% heat delivered = 12000kcal/kg of natural gas.
% 50 208 000 J per kg
% The value published by IPCC is 15,5 t C / TJ.
Natural Gas raw energy:
15.5 tC/TJ (IPCC)
is 15.5 kgC/GJ
is 57\,kg \COO/GJ
is 57\,g \COO/MJ
% kWh = 3.6MJ
is 200\,g \COO/kWh.
% 204.6
Each gallon of fuel contributes 10\,kg of \COO\ pollution.
\subsection{LCVs}
I prefer to use HCVs, but here's a list of LCVs:
Gas 50\,MJ/kg;
Oil 40\,MJ/kg;
Coal 30\,MJ/kg.
\section{Money}
Natural gas import price paid by the EU-15:
3.66 Euro per GJ (2003 price).
Liquified Natural gas import price paid by the EU-15:
3.38 Euro per GJ (2003 price).
Electricity price (industrial, UK):
11.14 \euro\ per GJ (2004).
Household natural gas price: 7.6 \euro\ per GJ
(UK price 2004).
% that's 2.7c per kWh
Household electricity price: 23.3 \euro\ per
GJ. (UK price 2004)
\section{Economic energy intensity}
Energy intensity of
EU-15 in 2002 was about 190
kg oil equivalent per 1000 \euro.
Energy intensity of
EU-25 in 2002 was about 210
kg oil equivalent per 1000 \euro.
Using Crude Oil 45.7 GJ/tonne, that's 12\,700\,kWh/tonne.
So 200 kg oil is 2500\,kWh.
(42 GJ is the standard figure, which gives 2300\,kWh instead.)
Gross calorific values.
47.1 GJ per tonne of motor spirit
45.6 GJ per tonne of Gas/diesel oil (DERV)
% from TSGB
Oil: 262 imperial gallons per tonne; 1192 litres per tonne.
Aviation gasoline 1397 litres per tonne
Motor spirit: 1357 litres per tonne
DERV fuel: 1203 litres per tonne
Net calorific value of fuel is calorific value minus the
energy that gets wasted vaporizing the water in the
fuel and the water generated by combustion.
Which is 5 or 10 or 15 percent
% (page 18)
for oil and coal, gases, and straw/poultry litter.
For wood IT DEPENDS A LOT. Dry wood has net calorific
value of 19\,GJ per tonne.
% IPCC say 20GJ/ton on page 410 of ccs doc HHV HHV HHV
Ordinary wood, 50\% moisture content,
is 10\,GJ.
\subsection{Gross calorific values}
Coal 26.7 GJ/tonne
% from IPCC:
% anthracite 26.2, bituminous coal 27.8, sub-bit 19.9, lignite 14.9
Wood 10--20 GJ per tonne
% 20 from the IPCC for dry wood
Solid waste 9.5GJ/tonne
Crude Oil 45.7 GJ/tonne
Petroleum 45.9 GJ/tonne
Petrol 47.1
Diesel 45.6
Natural gas 39.6 MJ/cubic metre
% or 1.1214 MJ/cubic foot
or 1.1 MJ/cubic foot
% from IPCC:
Distiliiate fuel oil 38\,650\,MJ/m$^3$.
Residual fuel oil 41\,716\,MJ/m$^3$.
Kerosene 37\,622\,MJ/m$^3$.
LPG 25\,220\,MJ/m$^3$.
LPG 25.220\,MJ/l.
\cite{TreloarLoveCrawford}
They suggest general emission factor for fossil fuels:
60\,kg\COOe\ per GJ. Which is 216\,g per kWh.
Which means 100 kWh per day is equivalent to
8\,t \COOe\ per year.
They also assume a primary energy factor
of 1.4 for all liquid fuels -- \ie, it
takes 1.4\,GJ of oil and other primary
fuels to make 1\,GJ of petrol.
\section{Home}
The unit `a home'
is frequently used -- for example, when
there is talk of the UK having 2\,GW of wind power capacity
\myurl{http://www.bwea.com/ukwed/},
this gets converted to a `homes equivalent', as if the phrase
`1137784 homes equivalent' is more comprehensible.
I dislike the `home' unit because it's unclear what aspects of
home consumption are included -- the full power consumption of a typical
home, or just its electricity --
and because I think it misleads people into overestimating
the amount of power being discussed. For example,
if I announced a new renewable source that would
provide enough power for `all the homes in Britain',
I think many people would think we didn't need any more power than that.
But using the standard exchange rates, the amount of power would be
just 14\,GW, which is only one third of current electricity consumption,
and one twentieth of the total power consumption of the U.K..
Here's another newspaper article using the `home'
to describe how big a tidal power scheme could be.
`Mersey could power all city homes'
(June 14 2007, Liverpool Daily Post).
% \tinyurl{ystzas}{http://icliverpool.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/0100regionalnews/tm_headline=mersey-could-power-all-city-homes%26method=full%26objectid=19294381%26siteid=50061-name_page.html}
%% the original press release is
%% \tinyurl{2a7hdy}{http://www.nwda.co.uk/news--events/press-releases/200701/electric-current-power-from-t.aspx}
%% the organization website is http://www.merseytidalpower.co.uk/
A tidal barrage here could power `up to 260\,000 homes'.
Using the Swedish exchange rate, that would mean they
are anticipating getting up to 120\,MW.
The article mentions 700\,MW.
Presumably that's the peak
capacity, not the average power.
Yes, the annual power of the barrage would
be 1200\,GWh. Which is 140\,MW.
So we have a UK figure of `one home = 0.52\,kW'.
%% Peel Holdings, the Mersey Basin Campaign and the North West Development Agency
%% Professor Peter Guthrie, Professor of Engineering for Sustainable Development at Cambridge University, has been part of the study team led by consultants Buro Happold.
%% The typical UK house is thought to take about 3,300 kWh of electricity a year, which is 376W
%% This conventional assumption is used in all advertising and in product comparisons. It is out-of-date and 3,700 would be a better figure.) (422W)
%% http://www.carboncommentary.com/2007/10/01/19#more-19
%Current turbines operational: 1618, with a peak power of 1.7\,GW.
%``Homes'' --
The standard conversion rate
seems to be that 1.787\,kW of {\em{peak}\/} wind power is
equivalent to one `home'; and since peak wind power is usually bigger
than average wind power by a factor of three, I think
one that means a `home' is about {\bf{0.6\,kW}}.
In my calculation I assumed 24\,million `homes'.
The other quantity quoted is the number of tonnes of \COO\ saved per year.
The official exchange rates appear to be 4\,tonnes\,\COO\ per home per year
and 770\,g\,\COO\ per kWh.
% tonnes homes (kW/home) hours
% pr 4598924e3 / 1137784.0 / (1.787/3 *365.25*24)
%
UK gallon = 1.2\,US gall = 4.546 l
The standard barrel for petroleum products = 42\,US gallons
and
1 barrel = 159 litres. (Seems to be an accepted definition.)
But beware! google says
1 barrel = 117.35 litres
and 1 barrel is 31 US gallons. (This is the US beer barrel.)
In the UK a barrel is 36 imperial gallons, which is 163.7 litres.
So we can't trust the barrel.
1 barrel of oil (\ind{bbl}) is 0.14 tonnes of oil (\ind{toe}).
Be aware, furthermore, that fluid ounces are
not constants either:
1 Imperial fluid ounce = 0.961 US fluid ounces.
\section{Horses}
Jevons: seven horses could do the work of 34 men.
\section{Other useful numbers}
Fraction of UK \COO\ emissions that come from industry: 40\%.
13 nations -- the G8 plus five big developing nations --
account for 70\% of greenhouse gas emissions.
9\,kWh per litre.
The gross calorific value of DERV is 45.5\,GJ/tonne;
of aviation fuel, 46.2; of motor spirit, 47\,GJ/tonne.
Motor spirit: One tonne = 299 UK gallons or
1\,358 litres.
Diesel: One tonne = 264 UK gallons or
1\,200 litres.
Interesting to express these per unit
mass also.
Petrol: 12\,kWh/kg.
% energy 9 kWh/l
% density 0.8 kg/l
Coal: 8\,kWh/kg.
\section{Powers per unit area}
Put my own figures here.
From Hodgson page 127, area per MW (m$^2$):
\begin{tabular}{lr}
\multicolumn{2}{c}{area per MW (m$^2$)}\\
Nuclear& 630\\
Oil & 870\\
Gas &1500\\
Coal &2400\\
Solar &1\,000\,000\\
Hydro &265\,000\\
Wind &1\,700\,000$^*$ \\
\end{tabular}
(*) (of which much of the land can be used
for other purposes, \eg\ agriculture)
\begin{tabular}{lr}
\multicolumn{2}{c}{power density (\Wmm)}\\
Nuclear& 1600 \\
Oil & 1150\\
Gas & 670\\
Coal & 420\\
Solar & 1\\
Hydro & 3.8\\
Wind & 0.6\\
\end{tabular}
% \section{Powers per unit length} Wave, tide.
% \section{Transport efficiencies (kWh per 100 Passenger-km)}
List of tables:
Powers per unit area
Transport efficiencies (kWh per 100 Passenger-km)
Energy contents of fuels
Carbon contents of fuels
Things equivalent to one \tonne\ of \COO\ per year
Energy conversion
Power conversion
Population densities
\noindent
\begin{tabular}{lrrr} \toprule
& \multicolumn{2}{c}{ By weight}& By volume \\
Solid fuels & kWh/{\kg} & litres/{\kg}& kWh/litre\\ \midrule
Coal (weighted average) & 7.417 & -- & --\\
Coke & 8.445 & -- & --\\ \midrule
Liquid fuels & kWh/{\kg} & litres/{\kg}& kWh/litre\\ \midrule
Crude oil (weighted average) & 12.682 & 1.192 & 10.6\\
Petroleum products (weighted average)& 12.751 & -- & --\\
Ethane & 14.071 & 2.730 & 5.2\\
Liquefied petroleum gas & 13.721 & 1.850 & 7.4\\
Aviation turbine fuel & 12.845 & 1.251 & 10.3\\
Motor spirit & 13.087 & 1.362 & 9.6\\
Gas/diesel oil & 12.668 & 1.187 & 10.7\\
Fuel oil & 12.087 & 1.031 & 11.7\\
Power station oil & 12.087 & 1.142 & 10.6\\ \midrule
Gaseous fuels & kWh/{\kg} & litres/{\tonne}& kWh/m$^3$\\ \midrule
Natural gas & -- & -- &11.00\\
Coke oven gas & -- & -- & 5.00\\
Blast furnace gas & -- & -- & 0.83\\
Landfill gas & -- & -- &5.8-7.0\\
Sewage gas & -- & -- &5.8-7.0\\ \midrule
Solid renewables & kWh/{\kg} & litres/{\tonne}& kWh/m$^3$\\ \midrule
Domestic wood & 2.778 & &\\
Industrial wood & 3.306 & -- & --\\
Straw & 4.167 & &\\
Poultry litter & 2.445 & -- & --\\
General industrial waste & 4.445 & -- & --\\
Hospital waste & 3.889 & &\\
Municipal solid waste & 2.639 & -- & --\\
Refuse-derived waste & 5.139 & -- & --\\
Tyres & 8.890 & -- & --\\
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
Source: Annex A of the Digest of UK Energy Statistics 2005
%% http://www.carbontrust.co.uk/publications/publicationdetail.htm?productid=CTL004
\subsection{Fluxes}
%Incoming solar flux at ground level on a clear day:
%240--250\,\Wmm.
Outgoing flux from black bodies at
temperatures of
%% [273.15 277.15 283.15 293.15].**4 * 5.67e-8
\begin{tabular}{cccc}
0\degreesC&
4\degreesC&
10\degreesC&
20\degreesC\\
316\,\Wmm&
335\,\Wmm&
364\,\Wmm&
419\,\Wmm\\
\end{tabular}
%% http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:G3jLttbndLUJ:www.olis.oecd.org/olis/1996doc.nsf/9c6cd8fd90a0d74dc12569fa005d2cba/cbcb66df21cf7ea4c12563a000341553/%24FILE/09E60552.ENG+%22transportation+cost%22+uk+%22per+tonne+kilometre%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4
\margintab{
\begin{tabular}{lr} \toprule
Mode & $\!\!\!\!\!\!$ g \COOe\ per \\
& \tonne-km \\ \midrule
7.5-\tonne\ truck & 174 \\
40-\tonne\ truck & 56 \\ % is that the gross weight when laden?
Fast rail & 39 \\
Slow rail & 14 \\
Aircraft & 3\,414 \\ \bottomrule
\end{tabular}
\caption[a]{Carbon dioxide emissions by freight
transport (\COO\ equivalent).}
}
%% http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/energy_conv.html
20\,GJ per {\tonne} of dry wood.
5.5kWh.
\subsection{Carbon coefficients}
from ORNL \tinyurlb{2hcgdh}{http://cta.ornl.gov/data/appendix_b.shtml}.
\begin{tabular}{cc}\toprule
% Million metric tons carbon per quadrillion btu high heat value
% convert to kg carbondioxide per kWh
% by multiplying by (44/12)*1e9 / (1e15/3409)
& \hspace*{-4mm}carbon coefficient \\
& \hspace*{-4mm}g\,\COO\ per kWh \\
& \hspace*{-4mm}of chemical energy \\% chemical not electric
\midrule
coal & 320\\% 26
natural gas & 180 \\ % 14.47
% Aviation gasoline & 0.24 \\ % 0.236 18.87
% Crude oil 20.30
% Distillate fuel 19.95
jet fuel & 240 \\ % 19.33
% Kerosene 19.72
% LPG 16.99
% Lubricants 20.24
% motor
gasoline & 240 \\ % 19.34
% Petrochemical feed. 19.37
% Petroleum coke 27.85
% Residual fuel 21.49
% Waxes 19.81
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
\section{Energy conversion}
1\,kWh = 3.6\,MJ
kJ/mol in eV:
kT in eV and kJ/mol:
1 TOE = $10^7$ kilocal = 397 therms = 41.9 GJ = 11\,630\,kWh
100\,000\,Btu = 1 therm = 29\,kWh.
\section{Carbon and energy}
% from IPCC:
Emission factors of fuels (g\COO/MJ):
Coal:
anthracite 96.8,
bituminous coal 87.3,
sub-bit 90.3,
lignite 91.6
Wood: 78.4
Natural gas: 50
Distiliiate fuel oil 68.6
Residual fuel oil 73.9
Kerosene 67.8
LPG 59.1
Motor gasoline 69.3
\subsection{Greenhouse gas intensities of economies}
The UK's GHG intensity in 2006 was
458\,\tCOOe\ per \$M (at year 2000 prices)
\cite{DHelm}.
China's was 4,140\,\tCOOe/\$M.
Energy intensities: the embodied energy intensity of of UK
agriculture was 20\,MJ of primary fossil energy use per US\$ in 1985.
\cite{Battjes} (Which is roughly four times the direct energy
intensity.) For UK industry, 22\,MJ per US\$; UK transport, 24\,MJ
per \$; UK services, 12\,MJ per \$. (All in 1985.)
25 million {\tonne}s of waste was produced in 1997 in the UK and a third of this
was food packaging.
% 1.5Mt of plastic packaging
That's a number worth remembering:
Waste production: $400$\,kg per person per year,
% 417
or roughly 1\,kg per day.
% 1.1
% 30
Four {\tonne}s of municipal solid waste (MSW) contains
as much energy as 1 {\tonne} of coal -- 8000\,kWh of heat.
Gross calorific value of MSW:
% 6500--10,000\,kJ/kg.
1.8--2.8\,kWh/kg. Electricity produced:
1--1.4\,kWh/kg.
% 200\,000\,t MSW per year $\rightarrow$ 21.5\,MW.
% ``Present capacity is about 115MW'' (in 2000) Now in 2008 it is 253MW.
% My graph (waste.eps) indicated
% 200\,000\,t MSW per year $\rightarrow$ 18\,MW.
HGVs do 2 miles per litre. (10\,mpg)\index{fuel efficiency!of heavy goods vehicle}\index{heavy goods vehicle}
\cite{Dajnak} says 490\,kg of municipal solid waste per urban
inhabitant in the UK in 1996.
% 50 Mt per UK
% 25 Mt of household and commercial per year
% 25 Mt of industrial .
% could deliver 4000 MW, they say.
\begin{table}
\begin{tabular}{c@{\ \ $\leftrightarrow$\ \ }cc}
1 ton of \COO\ per year & 3 \kg\ \COO\ per day %& (2.7) \\
\\
%1 \kg\ of carbon per day & 4 \kg\ \COO\ per day %& (3.7) \\
%\\
%1 ton of carbon per year & 10 \kg\ \COO\ per day %& (10.0) \\
%\\
\end{tabular}
\caption[a]{Conversion rates for carbon emissions}
\label{CratesAgain}
\end{table}
\begin{tabular}{c@{\ $=$\ }c}\toprule
\multicolumn{2}{c}{\sc{Useful identities}}\\ \toprule
at room temperature, ${1\,kT}$ & $\displaystyle\frac{1}{40}{\rm{eV}}$ \\
% Visible photon & 2\,eV \\
${1\,kT}$ per molecule & {2.5\,kJ}/mol \\
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
\subsection{Energy intensity of steel and concrete}
Embodied energies:
32\,MPa concrete: 5.85\,GJ/m$^3$.
5\,MPa concrete: 2.03\,GJ/m$^3$.
Steel (for use in road building): 68.6\,GJ/t.
Asphalt: 10.8\,GJ/m$^3$.
Source:
\nocite{TreloarLoveCrawford}
\subsection{Densities}
Sea water: 1027\,kg/m$^3$.
Specific density of rock:
roughly 2.8. (That is, the density is 2800\,kg/m$^3$.)
% Aluminium: 2.7.