\amarginfig{t}{
\begin{tabular}{@{}c@{}}
{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/tram.eps}}}\\
\end{tabular} \\
\caption[a]{Tram 147 in Blackpool.\index{tram}
Photo from \myurl{www.blackpool.gov.uk}.
%% Blackpool Council
%% http://www.blackpool.gov.uk/News/2006/Oct/Tramsontrackforupgrade.htm
}
}
\marginfig{
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{@{}c@{}}
{\mbox{\epsfysize=22.95mm\epsfbox{../../images/tramIstan.eps}}}\,%
{\mbox{\epsfysize=22.95mm\epsfbox{../../images/PragueTram.eps}}}%
\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\caption[a]{Trams work nicely
% Public transport works
in Istanbul and Prague too.
}\label{TramIstan}
}
(\figref{Hard2}).%
\marginfig{
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{@{}c@{}}
\lowres{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/Hard2BelieveS.jpg.eps}}}%
{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/Hard2Believe.eps}}}\\
%{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/joe-camel.eps}}}\\
%{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/joe_camel.eps}}}\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\caption[a]{Fashion statements\ldots\ or perhaps hormone statements?
}\label{Hard2}
}
WALKING
\marginpar[t]{
\begin{center}
\epsfxsize=53mm\mbox{\epsfbox{../../images/TransportFootprint2.eps}}
\end{center}
%}{
% \caption[a]{
% Transport's footprints
% }
%\end{figure}
\index{footprint}\label{pfootpr}
}
Notes For the big summary figure
% QE2 http://www.qe2.org.uk/engine.html 70,327 tons and 963 feet
% top speed 32.5 knots,
% service speed 28.5 knots consumes 380t per day of tar-like diesel.
% Electric generators with output of 95 MW; propulsion motors 2x44MW
% \myurl{http://www.qe2.org.uk/}
% 28.5 knots = 52.78200 km/h
% Gross Tonnage: 70,327 (originally 69,053)
% Net Tonnage: 37,182 (originally 36,038)
% Deadweight Tonnage: 11,649
% 1900 passengers crew 1015
% Length: 963 ft (293.52m)
% Breadth: 105 ft (32.07m)
% Draft: 32 ft
% Diesel = 45.6 GJ/t
% So the FUEL consumption at 28.5kn is 4.8e6kWh per day >>> 200.6MW <<<
% 380 * 45.6e9 / ( 24*3600) / 1e6
% ((200.56 MW) / 1 900) / (28.5 knots) = 1.99988433 kWh / km
% 200 kWh per 100 pkm
% 380t per day * 6 days = 2280 tons
To be fair to the boats, they are not only providing transportation: they also
provide the passengers and crew with hot air, hot water, light, and entertainment
for several days. If the
passengers have switched off all their personal energy-consumption back home, we
should perhaps take this energy-saving into account. If being locked up on the boat
{\em{prevents}\/} you and the crew from using 60\,kWh per day that you would otherwise have used on dry land,
the {\em{net}\/} transport-energy cost of the QE2 (assuming 1615 passengers and 1015 crew, a speed of
52\,km/h, and a fuel
consumption of 380\,t per day, or 200\,000\,kW)
% of a six-day trip from Southampton to New York on the QE2
% ueen Mary 2
is:
% 1300 t of fuel
\begin{eqnarray}
\frac{ \mbox{energy used per day} - \mbox{energy saved per day} }
{ \mbox{transportation created per day} }
&=&
\frac{ \mbox{200\,000\,\kW \times 24\,{\rm h} } - \mbox{ 2630 \times 60\,kWh } }
{ 1615\,\mbox{p} \times 52\,{\rm km/h} \times 24\,{\rm h} }
\\
&=&
\frac{ 4\,800\,000\,{\kWh} - \mbox{ 160\,000\,kWh } }
{ 2\,016\,000\,\mbox{p-km} }
\\
&=&
230\,\kWh/\pkm
\end{eqnarray}
% engine power is using 123kW per passenger, so must be 3000 kWh per day
\item[\ind{Kaz}]
An 8-passenger 8-wheel vehicle that never made
it into production. Weight: 3000\,kg.
% 88Ah per battery. Li ion. 84 of them. 55 kWh total -> 18kWh per 100km (bump up to 20
% to allow a bit for charging)
% Total weight 600kg of batteries.
Range: 300\,km at 100\,km/h.
% http://www.gaura.com/ev/kaz/index_e.html
\eccol{20\,kWh per 100\,km}.
% 55kW motor in each of 8 wheels total 440kW.
Top speed 311\,km/h.
% \newlineone
\myurl{http://www.electrifyingtimes.com/kaz.html}
\item[Electric trams]
Battery-powered \ind{electric tram}s\index{tram!electric} --
further reading:
\myurl{http://www.tdi.uk.com/},
%% trialled in stratford on avon
\myurl{http://www.tbus.org.uk},
\myurl{http://www.scottishelectrictransit.org.uk}
Summary:
there's a mix of lifestyle changes and alternative technologies -- sometimes
difficult to separate: is going by train rather than car a lifestyle change
or a technology change?
The underlying principles are:\index{transport!efficiency measures}
reduce the frontal area per person;
reduce the vehicle's weight per person;
when travelling, go at a steady speed; avoid using brakes;
travel slower;
travel less; and
make the energy chain more efficient.
%% 95% of a car's energy goes towards moving the car itself, and only 5% to moving the passenger.
%% http://bicycleuniverse.info/transpo/almanac.html
%% A mere three tenths of 1 percent of fuel energy goes into moving the driver.
%% http://www.dirtragmag.com/forums/showthread.php?t=16688
%% and
%% http://www.newsweek.com/id/112733/output/print
\begin{tabular}{c}
{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/Tradbuss.eps}}}\\
\end{tabular}
A \ind{Polish} \ind{Solaris} \ind{trolleybus}
in Landskrona, Sweden.
Photo by Carl--Johan Aberger.
The diesel intercity 125
% engine on the right weighs 70 tonnes and
% uses a power of 1.7\,MW. The whole
on the right can carry about 500 passengers,
weighs 410\,\tons\ and uses a power of 3.4\,MW
when travelling at 125\,mph.
%% in London. 201 km/h
\section{Coaches for long-distance journeys}
Make sure to mention that they are roughly as good as trains
in energy terms. Though they are not so easily electrified,
they are more flexible in route.
\section{Congestion reduction}
Buses are more energy-efficient than underground
trains
(in terms of kWh per passenger-km)
but the trains deliver higher speeds
and the staff costs are significantly less.
Updated figures
from Transport for London:
\tinyurl{5eztw4}{http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/corporate/Environment-Report-2006.pdf}:
cars, 124 g/\pkm\ (low due to load factor), buses 103
g/\pkm, and underground 55 g/\pkm, although maybe they
don't include running the stations?
http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/environmental-report-2007.pdf
http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/corporate/TfL-environment-report-2007.pdf
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{ll} \toprule
\multicolumn{2}{c}{{\sc{Energy efficiencies (per passenger)
}}} \\ \midrule
Car (doing 33\,mpg): \\
\ \ single occupant & 80\,\kWh\ per 100\,km\\
\ \ share between 4 seats &
20\,\kWh\ per 100\,seat-km\\%%% 0.188356
Electric car: \\
\ \ single occupant & 11\,\kWh(e)\ per 100\,km\\
%Electric car: \\
%\ \ single occupant & 28\,\kWh\ per 100\,km\\
Plane: %%% ``airbus less than 3 l per passenger over 100 km''
%%% 199000l / 12700 km / 452 passengers
%%% pr 100.0 * 199000 / 12700 km / 452.0
%%% 3.76 l/100km each
%%% pr 100.0 * 199000 / 12700 km / 416.0
%%% 3.46 l/100km each
%%% see flight.tex for definitive calculation
%%% 747 could be 30 or so, also, if pack passengers in
\ \ 747 (cruise speed 900\,km/h) & 42\,kWh per 100\,seat-km\\% used to be 36 before Sun 16/12/07
%% \ \ Airbus A380 & 26\,\kWh per 100\,seat-km\\
%% \ \ Airbus 340 & 32.56\,\kWh per 100\,seat-km\\
Fast trains: ICE at 200 km/h (125mph) & 3\,kWh(e) per 100\,seat-km\\
%Fast trains: ICE at 200 km/h (125mph) & 7\,kWh per 100\,seat-km\\
Victoria line (underground), \\
\ \ average speed 48 km/h (30\,mph) & 4\,kWh(e) per 100\,passenger-km\\
% converted at a factor of 2.5...
% Victoria line (underground)
% , average speed 48 km/h (30\,mph)
% & 10\,kWh per 100\,passenger-km\\
London transport trains, average speed 33\,km/h (20\,mph),\\
total cost including lighting, lifts, depots, workshops & 70\,kWh per 100\,actual passenger-km\\
%% occupancy per vehicle: 11.8, distance between stops: 1.8km
%% Rail delivered 4000 million passenger km
London buses, average speed 18 km/h (11\,mph) & 24\,kWh per 100\,actual passenger-km\\
%% occupancy per vehicle: 14.4, distance between stops: 0.3km
%% Bus delivered 4000 million passenger km
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\section{Speed laws}
An easy way to reduce energy consumption from transport is
to reduce the speed at which people drive.
Possibly unnecessary if there is a sufficiently big
energy tax, and drivers are educated and informed
about the way that fuel consumption increases with speed.
But energy taxes won't persuade the rich to drive slowly,
so it might be a good idea to introduce 50\,mph speed limits on roads,
65\,mph on motorways, and 25\,mph in built-up areas.
(Quantify expected energy savings -- see later in this chapter.)
\section{Vehicle frontal area restrictions}
Increased tax for vehicles higher than 4 feet.
(Side-benefit: increases visibility of pedestrians
and cyclists, and ability of pedestrians and cyclists to see
clearly.)
Special lower speed limit, like the current
60\,mph speed limit for \ind{heavy goods vehicle}s,
for all large vehicles.
% By mandating lower speed-limits
% for larger cars, people could
% choose to drive huge cars if they wanted to, but
% it could be arranged that all vehicles would have
% the same fuel efficiencies.
Tax incentives favouring cars with lower-power engines.
Include an up-front tax on new cars, proportional to the
expected lifetime carbon emissions of the vehicle.
\section{Energy total for transport}
UK: 52\,Mtoe (2002) of which
road 39, air 11, rail 1.