\marginfig{
%\begin{figure}
%\figuremargin{
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{@{}c@{}}
%%{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/cam/housing1.eps}}} \\
\lowres{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/cam/houses2S.eps}}}%
{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/cam/houses2.eps}}} \\
% removed this one Sun 24/8/08
%\lowres{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/cam/houses3S.eps}}}%
%{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/cam/houses3.eps}}} \\
%{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/cam/houses5.eps}}} \\
%{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{../../images/cam/houses4.eps}}} \\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
%}{
\caption[a]{A flock of new houses.}
% , yesterday.}
}
% \end{figure}
% Home is where the heart is.
% Home is also where over a third of our energy is expended.
% We spend about one third of our energy on
This chapter explores how much power we spend controlling the \ind{temperature}
of our surroundings -- at home and at work -- and on warming or cooling
our food, drink, \ind{laundry},\index{cooking} and dirty dishes.
\section{Domestic water heating}
% Let's estimate how much energy we might put into
% water-heating.
% One strategy is to identify the biggest contributor
% to the total, estimate it, then allow for all the other
% smaller contributors by beefing the estimate up
% a little -- by a factor of two, perhaps.
The biggest use of hot water in a house might be\index{hot water}\index{water!hot}
\ind{bath}s, \ind{shower}s, \ind{dishwashing}, or \index{clothes washing}{clothes-washing} -- it depends
on your lifestyle.
% Some people have one hot bath per day.
Let's estimate first
the energy used by taking a hot bath.
% Sun 19/10/08 my bath used 45.03-35.62 cuft of gas (or 45.03-35.09
% if we include the lost hot water in the pipes of the house)
% which is 3.2 kWh.
% my shower uses 1.3496 kWh SHOWER
\marginfig{
\begin{center}
{\mbox{\epsfxsize=53mm\epsfbox{inkscape/bath2.eps}}}
\end{center}
\caption[a]{The \ind{water} in a \ind{bath}.}
\label{fig.bath}
}
% \subsection{Bathing}
% For one
% a modest
% bath, t V \simeq
The volume of bath-water is $50\,\cm \times 15\,\cm \times 150\,\cm
\simeq 110\,\litre$.
% ; a generous bath might be twice that.
% Actually I measured my modest bath water and got 62.3\l.
% Sun 29/6/08 I did it again (data/bath) and got 55l. And the energy used was exactly 2.48kWh.
% So 5kWh for 110 l is grand.
%
% p 39 (bath at 55 C)
% Isn't this scalding hot? I wouldn't set foot in it...
Say the temperature of the \ind{bath} is 50\degreesC\ (120\,F) and
the water coming into the house is at 10\degreesC\@.
The \ind{heat capacity} of water, which measures how much
energy is required to heat it up, is $4200$\,\J\ per \litre\ per \ndegreeC.
So the energy required to heat up the water by
% $\Delta T =
$40\degreesC$ is
\[%beq
% C V \Delta T =
4200 \, \J/\litre/\ndegreeC \times 110 \,\litre \times 40\degreesC
\, \simeq \, 18 \,\MJ \,\simeq\, 5 \,\kWh .
% 5.775
\]%eeq
% the water coming into the house is at 5\,C.
% The heat capacity of water is $C = 4200\, \J/\litre/\C$.
% So the energy required to heat up the water by $\Delta T = 45\,\C$ is
%\beq
% C V \Delta T = 4200 \, \J/\litre/\C \times 110 \,\litre \times 45\,\C
% \simeq 21 \,\MJ \simeq 6 \,\kWh .
%% 5.775
%\eeq
So taking a bath uses about
\Red{5\,kWh}.
% total so far: 5
For comparison, taking a shower (30\,litres) uses about \Red{1.4\,kWh}.
% MJB says *** need to say duration
% kettles are 4.5% of domestic elec.
% source Energy Saving Trust June 2006
\subsection{Kettles and cookers}
Britain, being a civilized country, has a 230 volt
domestic electricity supply.
%
With this supply, we can use an electric
\ind{kettle}\index{civilization}\index{electricity!supply}
to boil several litres of water in a couple of minutes.
Such kettles have a power of 3\,kW\@.\amarginfignocaption{c}{
\small \begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{rcl}
230\,V $\times$ 13\,A
&=& 3000\,\W\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
}
% (\Boxref{box.kettle}).
%% uncivilized
Why 3\,kW? Because this is the biggest power that a
230 \ind{volt} \ind{outlet}\index{electricity}
can deliver without the current exceeding
the maximum permitted,
\ind{13 amps}\index{amps}.
In countries\index{countries!civilized}
where the voltage is 110 volts,
it takes twice as long to make a pot of \ind{tea}.
If a household has the kettle on for 20 minutes per day, that's
an average power consumption of
\Red{1\,kWh per day}. (I'll work out the next few items ``per household,''
with 2 people per household.)
% \subsection{Cooker}
One small ring on an electric cooker has the same power as a \ind{toaster}:
1\,kW\@. The higher-power hot plates deliver 2.3\,kW\@.
If you use two rings of the \ind{cooker}\index{stove} on full power
for half an hour per day, that corresponds to \Red{1.6\,kWh per day}.
A \ind{microwave} {oven}\index{kilowatt}
usually has its cooking power marked on the front:
mine says 900\,W,
% , which is nearly a kilowatt;
but it actually
{\em{consumes}\/} about 1.4\,kW\@.
%% \ or more.
% You can check this by imagining choosing between putting
% your hands in the toaster or on the ring
If you use the microwave for 20 minutes per day,
that's \Red{0.5\,kWh per day}.%
\amarginfig{b}{\small
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{@{}c@{}c@{}}
\small \begin{tabular}[b]{@{}p{22.5mm}}
Microwave: 1400\,W peak\\[19.5mm]
Fridge-freezer: 100\,W peak,\\
18\,W average \\
% remeasured Sat 15/12/07: 105W peak, average 3.96kWh/235h = 17W\@. Good. (16.8) (According to maplin)
% remeasured Sat 22/3/08: 1173 hours, 18.17 kWh - 15.5W - 0.37 kWh/d WINTER,house low
% remeasured summer: Wed 22 July 2009: new maplin meter:
% 1.059 kWh in 48hrs 01mins. - which is 22W.
~\\
\vspace{0pt}\\
\end{tabular}
&
\begin{tabular}[b]{@{}l@{}}
\lowres{\epsfxsize=26mm\epsfbox{../../images/gadgets/MicrowFridgeF.jpg.S.eps}}%
{\epsfxsize=26mm\epsfbox{../../images/gadgets/MicrowFridgeF.jpg.eps}} \\
\vspace{0pt}\\
\end{tabular}\\[-2mm]
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\caption[a]{
Power consumption by a heating and a cooling device.\index{microwave}\index{fridge-freezer}\index{freezer}\index{refrigerator}
}
\label{figFF}
}
A regular \ind{oven} guzzles more: about 3\,kW
when on full.
% or even 6\,kW (when on full).
If you use the oven for one hour per day, and the
oven's on full power for half of that time,
that's \Red{1.5\,kWh per day}.\nlabel{pCooker}
% total so far: 5 + 3.5 = 8.5
% 1.8kW cooker measured by Nathaniel Taylor
%I've timed its warming up, with temperatures judged by occasionally
%twiddling the oven's thermostat to find the current on/off point.
% time(mins) temp(degC)
% 0 20
% 5 100
% 7? 150
% 10 200
%On reaching 200 degC, the cycle of the empty oven was about 180s
%on and 400s off, i.e. on for about 0.3 of the time, averaging less than
%600 W of heat loss. My wild guess of 0.5 in the previous email was
%not too bad.
% http://www.premiumappliances.co.uk/lacanche_macon.php
% little ovens: 1.8kW, grill 2.4kW
% elec oven + grill 2.5kW
% big gas ovens: 3.5kW
% oven examples: grill is 2.4 kW, oven is 1.8kW
% fan assisted electric ovens: 4kW common
% simmer oven, 1.1kW
% dual fuel cooker 5.4kW
% 4, 5 kW ovens . 2.3kW
% fan oven 2.4kW grill 2.9kW 5.3\,kW grill 2.2kW
% nominal power 3kW
% http://www.trade-appliances.co.uk/_5014336_Smeg_F67-7.html
\begin{table}[tbp]
\figuremargin{ \small
\begin{tabular}{ll*{3}{r@{\,}l}} \toprule
\multicolumn{2}{l}{Device} & \multicolumn{2}{c}{\hspace*{-3.2mm}power} & \multicolumn{2}{c}{time} & \multicolumn{2}{c}{energy} \\
& & & & \multicolumn{2}{c}{\hspace*{-3.2mm}per day} & \multicolumn{2}{c}{per day} \\
\midrule \multicolumn{2}{l}{Cooking}\\
& -- kettle & 3&kW & $\dfrac{1}{3}$&h & 1&kWh/d \\
& -- microwave & 1.4&kW & $\dfrac{1}{3}$&h & 0.5&kWh/d \\
& -- electric cooker (rings) & 3.3&kW & $\dfrac{1}{2}$&h & 1.6&kWh/d \\ %%% **
& -- electric oven & 3&kW & $\dfrac{1}{2}$&h & 1.5&kWh/d \\
\multicolumn{2}{l}{Cleaning}\\
& \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{}} -- washing machine\\ % with electric water heater
\end{tabular} &
2.5&kW & & & 1&kWh/d \\
& -- tumble dryer & 2.5&kW & 0.8&h & 2&kWh/d \\
& -- airing-cupboard drying & & & & & 0.5&kWh/d \\
& -- washing-line drying & & & & & 0&kWh/d \\
% when I run my clothes washer (cold-ish wash),
% the elec consumed is about 0.3kWh.
% when it is totally cold, 0.16kWh.
% Tue 7/10/08 see file wash for details. Elec was 0.41kWh
% gas was at most 1.5kWh for a 45C wash. In fact 0.41kWh
& \begin{tabular}{@{}l@{}}
-- dishwasher \\ % with electric water heater
\end{tabular} &
2.5&kW & & & 1.5&kWh/d \\ %
\multicolumn{2}{l}{Cooling}\\
& -- refrigerator & 0.02&kW & 24&h & 0.5&kWh/d \\
& -- freezer & 0.09&kW & 24&h & 2.3&kWh/d \\ %%% SHOULD I ADD THIS TO STACK?
& -- air-conditioning & 0.6&kW & 1&h & 0.6&kWh/d \\
% \midrule
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
}{
\caption[a]{Energy consumption figures for
\index{clothes dryer}\index{tumble dryer}\index{oven}heating and cooling devices,
per household. }
% Times and energies per day are rough averages.}
\label{tab.domestic.elecH}
}
% Dishwashers use 20l and 1 or 1.2kWh per wash. The water is mainly at 60C
% though the final heat may be a bit more.
\end{table}
% When I used tumble dryer I think 1hr per wash was normal. 1 wash every 3 days.ok.
\subsection{Hot clothes and hot dishes}
A clothes washer, dishwasher, and tumble dryer all use a power
of about 2.5\,kW when running.
\amarginfig{b}{
% \begin{figure}
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{cc}
%{\sc Consumption}& {\sc Production}\\
\multicolumn{2}{c}{\mbox{\epsfbox{metapost/stacks.251}} }\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
% }{
\caption[a]{The hot water total at both home and work --\index{bath}\index{shower}
including bathing, showering, clothes washing,\index{laundry}\index{clothes washing}\index{washing}
\ind{cooker}s, \ind{kettle}s,
\ind{microwave} oven, and \index{dishwashing}dishwashing --
is about 12\,kWh per day per person.
I've given this box a light colour
to indicate that this power could be
delivered by
% much of this energy is, or could be,
low-grade thermal energy.
}
}%
% \end{figure}
A clothes washer uses about 80\,litres of water per load,
with an energy cost of
about 1\,kWh if the temperature is set to 40\degreesC.
If we use an indoor airing-cupboard instead of a tumble dryer to dry
clothes, heat is still required to evaporate the water -- roughly 1.5\,kWh
to dry one load of clothes,\label{pAiring} instead of 3\,kWh.
% Spread over 3 days
% method of calculation:
% from 15 up 85 , boil, down 85
% (85 * 4.187) + 2257.92 - ( 1.87 * 85 )
% answer: 2454.9kJ of latent heat of vap at 15C.
% for 4kg of dry clothes the water added was 2.2kg
Totting up the estimates relating to hot water, I think it's
easy to use about \Red{12\,kWh per day per person}.%
%
% As usual, this is not
% an estimate of {\em{average}\/} consumption -- not everyone
% takes a daily bath, nor does everyone use clothes-washers and
% tumble-dryers this heavily.
\section{Hot air -- at home and at work}
\marginfig{
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{@{}c@{}}
\lowres{\epsfxsize=35mm\epsfbox{../../images/gadgets/Heater2kW.jpg.S.eps}}%
{\epsfxsize=35mm\epsfbox{../../images/gadgets/Heater2kW.jpg.eps}} \\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\caption[a]{
A big electric heater: 2\,kW\@.\index{fire, electric}
}
}%
Now, does more\index{air, hot}\index{hot air}
power go into making hot water and hot food, or into
making hot air via our buildings' \ind{radiator}s?
% , which are typically
% heated by burning natural gas?
% The same gas boiler that takes about ten minutes to generate
% a 6\,kWh bath might be on for 6 hours per day at
% full power keeping the
% house warm in winter; say 3 hours per day averaged.
% No, that's too much. Get data.
One way to estimate the energy used per day for hot air is
to imagine a building heated instead
by electric fires, whose powers\index{fire!electric}
are more familiar to us. The power of a small
electric \ind{bar fire} or \ind{electric fan heater}
is 1\,kW (24\,kWh per day).
In winter, you might need one of these per person to keep toasty.
In summer, none.
So we estimate that on average one modern person {\em{needs}\/}
to use 12\,kWh per day on hot air.
But most people use more than they need, keeping several rooms
warm simultaneously (kitchen, living room, corridor, and bathroom, say).
So a plausible consumption figure for hot air is about
double that:
\Red{24\,kWh per day per person}.
% total so far: 5 + 3.5 + 20 = 28.5
This chapter's companion \chref{ch.heating2}
contains a more detailed account of where the heat is going in a
building; this model makes it possible to predict the heat savings from
turning the thermostat down, double-glazing the windows, and so forth.
\marginfig{
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{cc}
% {\sc Consumption}& {\sc Production}\\
\multicolumn{2}{c}{\mbox{\epsfbox{metapost/stacks.261}} }\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
% }{
\caption[a]{Hot air total --
including domestic and workplace heating --
about 24\,kWh per day per person.
% I've given this box a light colour
% to indicate that this energy
% could be delivered as low-grade thermal energy.
% -- heat from burning gas, for example.
}
}
\subsection{Warming the outdoors, and other luxuries}
There's a growing trend
of warming the outdoors with \ind{patio heater}s.
% among muppets who haven't heard of sweaters.
% , which are used to warm the outdoors -- a remarkable aim!
Typical patio heaters have a power of 15\,kW\@.
%
So if you use one of these
% are in the habit of
% warming the outdoors with a patio heater
for a couple of hours every evening, you are using an extra \Red{30\,kWh per day}.
% Put on a sweater, muppet!
A more modest luxury is an electric blanket. An electric blanket for a double bed
uses 140\,W; switching it on for one hour uses \Red{0.14\,kWh}.
\section{Cooling}
\subsection{Fridge and freezer}
We control the temperatures not only of the hot water and
hot air with which we surround ourselves, but also of the cold
cupboards we squeeze into our hothouses.
My fridge-freezer, pictured in \figref{figFF},
consumes 18\,W on average -- that's roughly 0.5\,kWh/d.
% cut material here
\subsection{Air-conditioning}
In countries where the temperature gets above 30\degreesC,
\ind{air-conditioning} is viewed as a necessity, and the energy cost
of delivering that temperature control can be large.
% On large (cruise) passenger ships, roughly one third of the
% power goes on the airconditioning. (Need a source.)
% The power produced by the auxiliary engines is about 2.5\,MW\@.
%% Meyer Werft shipyard
% 93\,000\,ton, 294\,m {\em{Norwegian Pearl}},
% Norwegian Cruise Line, carrying 2394 passengers
% and 1100 crew,
%% so that's about 1kW each,
% diesel-eletric propulsion: $5 \times 14.4 =72$\,MW
% generators supplying 39\,MW of propulsion,
% cruising speed 25\,knots.
% Must emphasize how big \ind{air-conditioning} is, where people have it.
However, this part of the book is about British energy consumption,
and Britain's temperatures provide little need for air-conditioning
(\figref{fig.camb.temp}).
\begin{figure}[hbtp]
\figuremargin{
\begin{center}
\mono%
{\epsfxsize=\textwidth\epsfbox{../data/cambridge/mono/Cam2006Temp.eps}}%
{\epsfxsize=\textwidth\epsfbox{../data/cambridge/Cam2006Temp.eps}}%
%% made by load 'gnudd'
\end{center}
}{
\caption[a]{\ind{Cambridge} temperature in degrees Celsius, daily (red line),
and half-hourly (blue line) during 2006.
% Thanks to Digital Technology Group, Computer laboratory, Cambridge.
}
\label{fig.camb.temp}
}
\end{figure}
\index{heat pump}An
economical way to get air-conditioning is an \ind{air-source heat pump}.
A window-mounted electric air-conditioning unit for a single room
uses 0.6\,kW of electricity and (by heat-exchanger)
delivers 2.6\,kW of cooling. To estimate how much energy
someone might use in the \UK, I assumed they might switch such an
air-conditioning unit
on for about 12 hours per day on 30 days of the year.
On the days when it's on, the air-conditioner uses 7.2\,kWh.
% which corresponds to 1\,hour per day on average.
The average consumption over the whole year is \Red{0.6\,kWh/d}.
%% dd.dat, daily.pl
This chapter's estimate of the energy cost of cooling%
\marginfig{
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{cc}
%{\sc Consumption}& {\sc Production}\\
\multicolumn{2}{c}{\mbox{\epsfbox{metapost/stacks.271}} }\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
% }{
\caption[a]{Cooling total --
including a refrigerator (fridge/freezer)
and a little summer air-conditioning -- 1\,kWh/d.
}
}
-- 1\,kWh/d per person --
includes this air-conditioning and a domestic refrigerator.
Society also refrigerates food on its way from field to shopping basket.
I'll estimate the power cost
of the food-chain later, in \chref{ch.stuff}.
% omitted things: hairdryers, electric razor on charging stand, toothbrush.
\section{Total heating and cooling}
Our rough estimate of the total energy that one person
might spend on heating and cooling, including
home, workplace, and cooking, is
\Red{37\,kWh/d per person} (12 for hot water, 24 for hot air, and 1 for cooling).
% Allowing for a share of clothes-washing,
% tumble-drying, and dishwashing,
%% For ease of memorization,
% I'll round this up to 40\,kWh/d.
%\marginfig{
\begin{figure}\figuremargin{
\begin{center}
\mbox{\epsfxsize=103mm\mono%
{\epsfbox{../data/mono/newgas0.eps}}%
{\epsfbox{../data/newgas0.eps}}%
}\\
\end{center}
}{
\caption[a]{My domestic cumulative gas consumption, in kWh, each year from 1993 to 2005.
The number at the top of each year's line is the average
rate of energy consumption, in kWh per day.
To find out what happened in 2007, keep reading!
% could refer to fig.gas0
}
\label{fig.gas00}
}
\end{figure}
\marginfig{
% \begin{figure}
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{cc}
%{\sc Consumption}& {\sc Production}\\
\multicolumn{2}{c}{\mbox{\epsfbox{metapost/stacks.27}} }\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
% }{
\caption[a]{Heating and cooling --
about 37\,units per day per person.
I've removed the shading from this box
to indicate that it represents
power that could be delivered by low-grade thermal energy.
% consumption
% a lot of which is low-grade energy -- heat from
% burning gas, for example, for
% making hot air, hot water, and hot food.
% Low-grade energy could
% be provided by solar heat.
% It could also be provided by heat pumps at an electrical-energy
% cost significantly lower than the heat delivered.
}
}%
% \end{figure}
Evidence that this estimate is in the right ballpark,
or perhaps a little on the low side,
comes from my own
domestic gas consumption, which for 12 years
averaged 40\,kWh per day
(\figref{fig.gas00}).
At the time I thought I was a fairly frugal user of heating,
but I wasn't being attentive to my actual power consumption.
Chapter \ref{ch.smarth} will reveal how much power I saved
once I started paying attention.
Since heating is a big item in our consumption stack,
let's check my estimates against some national statistics.
Nationally, the average {\em domestic\/}
consumption for space heating, water, and cooking
in the year 2000 was 21\,kWh per day per person,
and\nlabel{pECUK}
consumption in the {\em service sector\/} for
heating, cooling, catering, and hot water was 8.5\,kWh/d/p.
% Further national data are given in this chapter's notes.
%\newpage
For an estimate of workplace heating,
let's take the gas consumption of the University of Cambridge in 2006--7:\nlabel{pCUgas}
16\,kWh/d per employee.
% In 2006--7, the University's gas consumption.
Totting up these three numbers, a second guess for the national
spend on heating is $21+8.5+16 \simeq 45$\,kWh/d per person, if
Cambridge University is a normal workplace.
Good, that's reassuringly close to our first guess of $37\,$kWh/d.
%\section{Domestic hot air}
%\subsection{Convection heater}
% A heater that makes hot air
% typically has a power of about 1 or 2\,kW\@.
% If a house is heated by electric convection heaters -- a bad idea, but
% many are! -- then maybe each person needs 1\,kW all the time, at least
% in the cooler months. If we say they have the heating on
% for half the year, we get an average consumption of 12\,kWh per day
% per person.
%
% The same hot air can also be created by burning gas.
\small
\section*{Notes and further reading}
\beforenotelist
\pagebreak[0]%
\begin{notelist}
\pagebreak[0]%
\item[page no.]
\pagebreak[0]%
\item[\npageref{pCooker}]
{\nqs{An oven uses 3\,kW}}.
Obviously there's a range of powers.
Many ovens have a maximum power of 1.8\,kW or 2.2\,kW\@.
Top-of-the-line ovens use as much as 6\,kW\@.
For example, the
Whirlpool AGB 487/WP
4 Hotplate Electric Oven Range
has a 5.9\,kW oven, and four 2.3\,kW hotplates. \par
\myurlb{www.kcmltd.com/electric_oven_ranges.shtml}{http://www.kcmltd.com/electric_oven_ranges.shtml}
\par
\myurlb{www.1stforkitchens.co.uk/kitchenovens.html}{http://www.1stforkitchens.co.uk/kitchenovens.html}
% http://www.twenga.co.uk/offer/102141516.html
% this smeg has 1.3kW+0.8kW+ fan element 2.6kW
% max power 2.65kW
\item[\npageref{pAiring}]
{\nqs{
An airing cupboard requires roughly 1.5\,kWh
to dry one load of clothes}.}
I worked this out by weighing my laundry: a load of clothes,
4\,kg when dry,
emerged from my Bosch washing machine weighing 2.2\,kg
more (even after a good German spinning).
The latent heat of vaporization of water at 15\degreesC\ is
roughly 2500\,kJ/kg.
% Spread over 3 days
% from 15 up 85 , boil, down 85
% (85 * 4.187) + 2257.92 - ( 1.87 * 85 )
% answer: 2454.9kJ of latent heat of vap at 15C.
% for 4kg of dry clothes the water added was 2.2kg
To obtain the daily figure in \tabref{tab.domestic.elecH} I assumed that one person
has a load of laundry every three days, and that this sucks valuable
heat from the house during the cold half of the year. (In summer,
using the airing cupboard delivers a little bit of air-conditioning, since the
evaporating water cools the air in the house.)
\item[\npageref{pECUK}]
{\nqs{Nationally, the average {domestic}
consumption was 21\,kWh/d/p;
consumption in the {service sector} was 8.5\,kWh/d/p.
}}
Source:
% These national averages are from
\cite{ECUK}.
%--
% Average domestic consumption for space heating, water, and cooking
% (2000): 21\,kWh/d/p.
% 48 Mtoe * 82% of which space 28 Mtoe;
% and for water: 11, cooking 2.5.
% I convert Mtoe/y/UK to kWh/d/p using *32/60
% that's 21 kWh/d/p
% Consumption in the service sector for
% heating, cooling, catering, hot water (2000):
%% thou toe
% retail 2400
% hotel, catering 3000
% education 2400
% offices 1800
% warehouses 1200
% government 900
% health 900
% sport 600
% other 2650
%% from p38
% total 15.850
% which is 8.5
% 8.5\,kWh/d/p.
%% SERVICE SECTOR ALL ENERGY:
% floor area of service sector buildings: 854 km**2
% 2005, total energy consumption: 19.320 M toe / y
% energy per person: 10.3 kWh/d.
% area per person: 14 sq m
% energy per unit area : 0.724 kWh/d/sq m = 30 \Wmm
\item[\npageref{pCUgas}]
{\nqs{
In 2006--7, Cambridge University's gas consumption was 16\,kWh/d per employee.
}}
The gas and oil consumption of the University of Cambridge (not including the
Colleges) was 76\,GWh in 2006--7.
I declared the University to be the place of work of
13\,300\,people (8602 staff and 4667 postgraduate researchers).
% plus 11.6 MWh of heat at Addenbrookes
% p18
Its electricity consumption, incidentally, was 99.5\,GWh.
Source: University utilities report.
%Thank you for the very kind comments. Paul Hasley was the principal author of the paper and I can
%confirm there are no confidentiality issues.
%Regards Martin D
% M.J.Dowling
%% http://www.ipsos-mori.com/publications/srireports/climatechange.php
%% An A rated dishwasher will use approximately 0.81 kWh (9 place settings) to
%% per programme
%% source: imeasure
%http://www.greenandeasy.co.uk/Upload/file/dishwashers_2008January18.pdf
%
%A study comparing energy use between hand washing and dishwashers
%http://www.mtprog.com/spm/download/document/id/598
\end{notelist}
\normalsize