http://www.access.digex.net/~erics/amend95.txt <-- as a text file
http://www.access.digex.net/~erics/amendwh5.html <--- accomanying article

1995 CLARIFICATIONS AND AMENDMENTS

These are the 1995 Clarifications and Amendments to the Ninth Edition Rules of Ultimate. Additions are noted in bold, deletions are noted with brackets [], and commentary is noted in italics.

II. CLARIFYING STATEMENTS

(Rules II)
(Rules II)
1. Phrases:
E. Ground Contact: All player contact with the ground directly related to a specific event or maneuver, including landing or recovery after being off-balance, e.g., jumping, diving, leaning,or falling.
F. Possession of the disc: Sustained contact with, and control of, the non-spinning disc.
a. To catch a pass is equivalent to establishing possession of that pass
b. Loss of control due to ground contact related to a pass reception negates that receiver's possession up to that point
(These added definitions add a great deal of clarity within the rules, much of which will be explained below. Among other things, it enables us to get rid of XV.10, see below. It also defines a "catch" for the first time, and makes that definition (by adding the worlds "and control of") closer to the ordinary usage of the word. Without this clause, a person on the ground who is unaware of the disc resting on his/her back, to cite an extreme example, would be in possession of the disc. No longer.)

VI. TIME-OUTS

(Rules VI)
(Rules VI)
1. Time-out.
E. During play, only [the person with] a player who has established a pivot foot and who has possession of the disc can call a time-out.

(This makes it clear that a person executing "the greatest," i.e., a person who jumps up catches the disc, and throws it before s/he lands, can not call a time out while in mid-air.)

F. When play resumes after a time-out:
(1) The player who had possession puts the disc into play.
(2) The disc is put into play at the location where the disc was when the time-out was called. [If the disc was out-of-bounds when the time-out was called, the disc is put into play at the point on the playing field proper nearest to where the disc went out-of-bounds. If the disc was in the end zone when the time-out was called, the disc is put into play at the point in the end zone where the time out was called.]

(Between the new clarification that you need a new pivot foot to put the disc into play, and a clarification in section XIX, this rule is not needed. In any event, a player now needs to have a pivot foot when s/he calls a time-out, and so it can not be called from out of bounds.)

VIII. STARTING AND RESTARTING PLAY

(Rules VIII)
(Rules IX)
(Rules IX)
7. To start or restart play after the disc has gone out-of-bounds, a member of the team gaining possession of the disc must carry the disc to the point on the playing field proper nearest where the disc [went out of bounds] last crossed the perimeter line, and put the disc into play at that point.

(This amendment is technical in nature, and makes the wording more accurate as to how the game is currently played.)

XII. TURNOVERS

(
Rules XII)
(Rules XII)
2. A pass is considered intercepted if a defensive player catches a pass. If a defensive player catches a pass and accidentally loses possession of it before or during ground contact related to that catch (II.1.F.b), the defender is considered to have blocked rather than intercepted the pass.
3.

(This change clarifies what happens when a player intercepts the disc and accidentally drops it when (or before) s/he hits the ground. In such an instance, the disc goes to the defender's team, and the play is considered as though it were a block. This is the way we already play, although the rules were not clear. The definitions added in section II also come into play here.)

XIII. THE THROWER

(Rules XIII)
(Rules XIII)
3. The thrower must establish a pivot foot and may not change that pivot foot until the throw is released, except in the case where the thrower has just received a pass and is throwing before the third ground contact in accordance with XV.5.

(This FINALLY clears up the long standing contradiction between XV.5 -- the third ground contact rule -- and the fact that this rule requires a pivot foot in order to throw. We simply make an explicit exception in that case. It also makes clear that "the greatest" is legal.)

7. A defensive player who establishes possession of the disc becomes the thrower, but may not throw the disc before s/he establishes a legal pivot foot. To do so is a travelling violation.

(And this section finally defines when a defensive person becomes an offensive person. It also makes clear that the "third ground contact rule" does not apply to a defensive person--s/he must have a pivot foot. Additionally, a "defensive greatest" would be a travelling violation.)

XV. THE RECEIVER

(Rules XV)
(Rules XV)
[3. The receiver gains possession by demonstrating sustained contact with a non-spinning disc.]

(This section is not needed anymore, because of our new definitions in section II.)

5. If the receiver is running or jumping as s/he catches the disc, the receiver may throw a pass before the third ground contact after catching the disc without coming to a complete stop; however, change in direction or increase in speed while in possession of the disc is a travelling violation*.

(This makes more clear the conditions under which an offensive player does not have to establish a pivot foot without travelling, and also makes it clear that "the greatest" is a legal play.)

[10. First ground contact determines possession. The ground can cause an incomplete pass, resulting in a turnover.]

(We have finally deleted what is probably the worst written rule in Ultimate. The problem is not only that no one plays that way, but the two sentences themselves contradict each other. Suppose a receiver lays out in the endzone, catches the disc, smashes to the ground, and drops it. Everyone plays that as a turnover. And, in fact, the second sentence in this clause says it's a turnover, but the first sentence above says that receiver has possession. Not only that, but the first sentence contradicts the old XV.3 rule which says that possession is determined by sustained contact with a non-spinning disc. With our new definitions in section II, we can get rid of this.)

XIX. CLARIFYING STATEMENTS ON FOULS, VIOLATIONS AND PICKS

(Rules XIX)
(Rules XIX)
8. Should a foul or violation result in possession reverting to a thrower who was airborne while releasing the disc, play shall be restarted at the point on the playing field proper closest to the location from which the throw was made.

(This answers the question of where to start play when a player making "the greatest", leaps out of bounds, and because of a foul, gets the disc back and must restart play.)